Henry VIII was crowned on 24 June 1509 with. The English and Scottish parliaments, however, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707 under Queen Anne (who was Queen of Great Britain rather than king). This change was made in response to anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I. After the death of Queen Elizabeth I without issue, in 1603, King James VI of Scotland also became James I of England, joining the crowns of England and Scotland in personal union. Since that time, except for King Edward III, the eldest sons of all English monarchs have borne this title. By the 14th century, England was also used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The House of Plantagenet takes its name from Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, husband of the Empress Matilda and father of Henry II. George V was king of England from 1910 to 1936. Alfred styled himself King of the Anglo-Saxons from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the English, his rule represents the start of the first unbroken line of kings to rule the whole of England, the House of Wessex. England, Scotland, and Ireland had shared a monarch for more than a hundred years, since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English and Irish thrones from his first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I. The period which followed is known as The Anarchy, as parties supporting each side fought in open warfare both in Britain and on the continent for the better part of two decades. Henry II named his son, another Henry (1155–1183), as co-ruler with him but this was a Norman custom of designating an heir, and the younger Henry did not outlive his father and rule in his own right, so he is not counted as a monarch on lists of kings. With the ascension of Charles's brother, the openly Catholic James II, England was again sent into a period of political turmoil. His system of castles established a greater sense of central authority than had existed previously, especially the impressive stone fortifications which now represent some of t… His son Edward the Elder conquered the eastern Danelaw, but Edward's son Æthelstan became the first king to rule the whole of England when he conquered Northumbria in 927, and he is regarded by some modern historians as the first true king of England. After a coup d'etat in 1653, Oliver Cromwell forcibly took control of England from Parliament. The king who began the personal union was James VI of Scotland who was also James I of England, and his name is often written (especially in Scotland) as James VI and I. The British royal family changed their surname (last name) from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor in 1917. He submitted to King William the Conqueror. This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Wessex, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which later made up modern England. Britain was the name made popular by the Romans when they came to the British islands.. England. It turns out a queen can rule without a king. Offa dominated a large part of southern England in the late eight century, but his descendants did not manage to keep the area as a kingdom. After Harthacnut, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066. After the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, William the Conqueror made permanent the recent removal of the capital from Winchester to London. Richard III was crowned on 6 July 1483 with. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. [xvii], This article is about English monarchs until 1707. James was descended from the Tudors through his great-grandmother, Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII and wife of James IV of Scotland. England used to be known as Engla land, meaning the land of the Angles, people from continental Germany, who began to invade Britain in the late 5th century, along with the Saxons and Jute.. Great Britain. The direct, eldest male line from Henry II includes monarchs commonly grouped together as the House of Plantagenet, which was the name given to the dynasty after the loss of most of their continental possessions, while cadet branches of this line became known as the House of Lancaster and the House of York during the War of the Roses. (See family tree.). Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tudur (anglicised to Owen Tudor) and Catherine of Valois, the widow of the Lancastrian King Henry V. Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) saw the throne pass back and forth between the rival houses of Lancaster and York. For example, Offa of Mercia and Egbert of Wessex are sometimes described as kings of England by popular writers, but it is no longer the majority view of historians that their wide dominions are part of a process leading to a unified England. This is 84% of the population of the UK. Eustace died the next year aged 23, during his father's lifetime, and so never became king in his own right.[62]. This house descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt. ^ Updated daily according to UTC The royal house descended from Matilda and Geoffrey is widely known by two names, the House of Anjou (after Geoffrey's title as Count of Anjou) or the House of Plantagenet, after his sobriquet. This was a survey of the entire population, and their lands and property, to help in collecting taxes. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet. Although well established, the surname Plantagenet has little historical justification. Conventionally viewed as England’s first king William I is perhaps best known for his invasion of Englandon 14 October 1066. No monarch reigned between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Under the terms of the marriage treaty between Philip I of Naples (Philip II of Spain from 15 January 1556) and Queen Mary I, Philip was to enjoy Mary's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. The Pope and the Church would not agree to this, and Eustace was not crowned. His descendants ruled England until Canute the Great, a, (Canute, Hardeknud, Hardicanute, Knud, Knut). The name of King Arthur does not appear in records detailing the Dark Ages Kings of England either. The potential candidates are Magnus Maximus, Ambrosius Aurelianus, Arthnou and Lucius Artorius Castus. What truly cements William’s position as one of the country’s great kings, however, is what he achieved after the Norman Conquest. The Principality of Wales was incorporated into the Kingdom of England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301 King Edward I invested his eldest son, the future King Edward II, as Prince of Wales. He was never crowned. Henry III was crowned on 28 October 1216. Seven sub-kingdoms - Essex, Kent, Sussex, Wessex, Mercia, East Anglia and Northumberland - had been formed by the newcomers, and their fortunes rose and fell often with the skill and determination of their rulers. The First Kings in England. Michael K. Jones and Malcolm G. Underwood, Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain, Alternative successions of the English crown, Family tree of English and British monarchs, List of monarchs of the British Isles by cause of death, List of rulers of the United Kingdom and predecessor states, "Family of Edgar +* and Aelfthryth +* of DEVON", "Ethelred II 'The Unready' (r. 978–1013 and 1014–1016)", "Edmund II 'Ironside' (r. Apr – Nov 1016)", "Edward III 'The Confessor' (r. 1042–1066)", "William I 'The Conqueror' (r. 1066–1087)", "William II (Known as William Rufus) (r. 1087–1100)", "Richard I Coeur de Lion ('The Lionheart') (r.1189–1199)", "England: Louis of France's Claim to the Throne of England: 1216–1217", "Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain (1554)", "History of St Giles' without Cripplegate", "Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1626–1712", "William III (r. 1689–1702) and Mary II (r. 1689–1694)", "Archontology – English Kings/Queens from 871 to 1707", "British Royal Family History – Kings and Queens", "English Monarchs – A complete history of the Kings and Queens of England", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_English_monarchs&oldid=995347080, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 15:14. It was not until the late 9th century that one kingdom, Wessex, had become the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom. He became King of England in 1327 at the age of 14, after the deposition of his father King Edward II and retained the position until his death. Æðelflæd was a 10th-century queen of Mercia. England again lacked any single head of state during several months of conflict between Fleetwood's party and that of George Monck. When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed. However he suffered military defeat at the hands of the English fleet. The Empress Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum ("Lady of the English"). The Civil War in England from 1642 until 1652 stemming from a growing enmity between King and Parliament, led to the execution of King Charles I in 1649. ÆÐELFLÆD f Anglo-Saxon Old English name composed of the elements æðel "noble" and flæd "beauty". Queen Elizabeth II became Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth on 6th February 1952. It is common among modern historians to refer to Henry II and his sons as the "Angevins" due to their vast continental Empire, and most of the Angevin kings before John spent more time in their continental possessions than in England. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) King of Great Britain. [viii], Count Eustace IV of Boulogne (c. 1130 – 17 August 1153) was appointed co-king of England by his father, King Stephen, on 6 April 1152, in order to guarantee his succession to the throne (as was the custom in France, but not in England). Britroyals Home Britroyals Shop Kings & Queens Kings & Queens. At a grand ceremony in St. Paul's Cathedral, on 2 June 1216, in the presence of numerous English clergy and nobles, the Mayor of London and Alexander II of Scotland, Prince Louis was proclaimed King Louis I of England (though not crowned). [70] "King Louis I of England" remains one of the least known kings to have ruled over a substantial part of England.[71]. [41] Upon Edmund's death just over a month later on 30 November, Cnut ruled the whole kingdom as its sole king for nineteen years. The obvious answer is that her son, Prince Charles, the next in line for the throne, would become the next King of England. When King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603, he was well aware that he was entering a sticky situation. The name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period (Engle-land, Engelond). William II was crowned on 26 September 1087. [93] Parliament did the same in an Act in 1397. The then Prince Louis landed on the Isle of Thanet, off the north Kent coast, on 21 May 1216, and marched more or less unopposed to London, where the streets were lined with cheering crowds. Following the death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready returned from exile and was again proclaimed king on 3 February 1014. During the ensuing Anarchy, Matilda controlled England for a few months in 1141—the first woman to do so—but was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England. This was the name of a Saxon king of England and two kings of Kent, one of whom was a saint. King Arthur The Legend of King Arthur. From 1066 -1154 - The Normans rule the English after their victory at the Battle of Hastings when William, Duke of Normandy was crowned King of England (William I) better known as William the Conqueror. As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish. Louis VIII of France briefly won two-thirds of England over to his side from May 1216 to September 1217 at the conclusion of the First Barons' War against King John. Who were all the kings of England? The Heptarchy (Old English: Seofonrīċe) is a collective name applied to the seven kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England (sometimes referred to as petty kingdoms) from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century until the consolidation into the four kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria, Wessex and East Anglia in the eighth century. Matilda was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, after the death of her brother on the White Ship, and acknowledged as such by the barons. And Scotland in 1707, see Home & Book Shop Angles '' on 6th February 1952 one! John Beaufort 's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort was married to Edmund Tudor, 1707! Three Tudor women to be proclaimed queen regnant 93 ] Parliament did same. And Mary as rightful king and queen of the elements æðel `` noble and! Home britroyals Shop kings & Queens the Tudors were the last hope for the Lancaster supporters now little more figureheads! 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