We shall see that it is only indirectly, by way of the nerve endings, that we have an effect on the olfactory nerve; it is too deep to be otherwise fully accessible. The orbital fissure, the optic canal and the spheno-maxillary fissure bring the skull into communication with the orbital region of the face. Lateral view of ethmoid bone. ethmoid Significado, definición, qué es ethmoid: 1. the bone that forms part of the nose and the eye sockets (= the bone around the eyes) 2. the…. The labyrinths, or lateral masses, of the ethmoid lie to either side of the midline and consist of a series of thin-walled ethmoidal cells. The olfactory bulb and tract also can be damaged by tumors of the frontal bone, pituitary tumors with frontal extension, frontal tumors such as gliomas that act as mass lesions, aneurysms at the circle of Willis, and meningitis. Both dogs and cats have frontal sinuses (see Fig. The very thin, horizontal cribriform plate (lamina cribrosa) of the ethmoid bone is bounded … lamina cribrosa ossis ethmoidalis. The olfactory bulb and tract can be damaged by meningiomas of the olfactory groove or, less commonly, of the sphenoid ridge. Cribriform plate width, olfactory fossa height, width and area values of contralateral side were significantly higher than those of the ipsilateral side. The orbital region is rich in orifices that allow access to the cranial nerves of the face. Processus uncinatus is believed to play an essential role in the prevention of the non-sterile inspired air from contacting the … The olfactory cortex has interconnections with the orbitofrontal cortex, the insular cortex, the hippocampus, and the lateral hypothalamus. Through the perforations of the plate run many divisions of the olfactory, or first cranial, nerve, coming from … ADVERTISEMENT: Radiopaedia is free thanks to our supporters and advertisers. After receiving synaptic messages from the olfactory neurons in the glomeruli, the mitral cell and tufted cell axons travel through the external plexiform layer (Simpson & Sweazey, 2013). Extension of primary nasal cavity tumors into the cranial vault may lead to seizures, behavior changes, paresis, circling, and visual deficits, but sometimes extension can be present without detectable clinical signs. It is a part of ethmoid bone and supports the olfactory bulb, which lies in the olfactory fossa. 4.1). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. There are four main ethmoid bone parts. Connections between the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory bulb. It is surrounded by a thin layer of pia-arachnoid cells (Doty, 2009). It is roughly the size and shape of an ice cube, but is only a fraction as heavy. All megachiropteran cribriform plates were entirely perforated. The cribriform plate is best observed endocranially, where the ethmoid can be seen to fill the ethmoid notch of the frontal. Axons leaving olfactory receptor cells cross the cribriform plate and make contact with second-order olfactory neurons in the main olfactory bulb, which is a specialized region below the frontal lobe, but not part of the cerebral cortex. Obstruction of the nasofrontal outflow tracts is common, occurring in approximately 70% of frontal sinus fractures.32 These tracts connect the frontal and ethmoid sinuses, and the status of their patency is a key criterion for surgical intervention.32,35-38 Indirect signs of nasofrontal outflow obstruction include computed tomography (CT) evidence of fluid in the frontal sinus and fractures of the medial frontal sinus floor.39-41 Nasoethmoidal or supraorbital fractures, especially those medial to the supraorbital notch, raise suspicion for nasofrontal outflow obstruction.42,43 Facial fractures, most commonly orbital floor, naso-orbitoethmoidal complex, zygomatic, and Le Fort fractures are three times more likely in patients with nasofrontal outflow tract involvement.32 Complications of missed outflow obstruction include chronic sinusitis and mucocele formation.44-47 Mucoceles have a high likelihood of becoming infected, thereby giving rise to frontal osteomyelitis or Pott’s puffy tumor, in addition to epidural and subdural empyemas. The olfactory tract bypasses the thalamus and projects to the anterior olfactory nucleus, the nucleus accumbens, the primary olfactory cortex (in the uncus), the amygdala, the periamygdaloid cortex, and the lateral entorhinal cortex. The ethmoid bone consists of four parts: the horizontal Cribriform plate (lamina cribrosa), part of the cranial base; the vertical Perpendicular plate (lamina perpendicularis), which is part of the nasal septum; the two lateral masses or labyrinths. The ethmoid has three parts: cribriform plate, ethmoidal labyrinth, and perpendicular plate. It is through the cribriform plate that the olfactory nerve fibers reach the nasal fossa. Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone. The nasal passage is divided in half by the nasal septum and is filled with thinly scrolled conchae (Fig. Shirley I. Stiver, in Schmidek and Sweet Operative Neurosurgical Techniques (Sixth Edition), 2012, Anterior skull base fractures of the orbital and cribriform plates frequently extend to involve the frontal sinus. Bhatnagar KP, Kallen FC. 11.2). In contrast, microchiropteran plates showed distinct perforated portions dorsally and … The long thin posterior … Primary sensory axons from bipolar neurons pass through the cribriform plate and synapse in the olfactory glomeruli in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. The ethmoid bone is made up of three parts – the cribriform plate, the perpendicular plate, and the ethmoidal labyrinth. Vogl TJ. The ethmoid bone is a small bone with a cuboidal structure that forms the lateral boundaries of the orbit, the anterior cranial fossa superiorly, and the nasal cavities inferiorly. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780120884674500107, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702031007500070, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124103900000317, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124103900000196, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323482479000243, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128008836000392, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781416068396101364, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323265119000163, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323482479000231, Cranial nerves as they emerge from the skull, Favre, Chaffanjon, Passagia, & Chirossel, 1995, Mancall & Brock, 2011; Simpson & Sweazey, 2013, FitzGerald et al., 2012; Simpson & Sweazey, 2013, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Brain Disease in Small Animals, Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology (Seventh Edition), Aggressive nasal tumors can extend through the, Quantitative Human Physiology (Second Edition), Axons leaving olfactory receptor cells cross the. Therefore, the response of the mitral cells is tuned to specific odorants. Remember that the smallest terminal nerve branches are the most reflexogenic. The ethmoid labyrinth is covered by the fovea ethmoidalis of the frontal bone and separates the ethmoidal cells from the anterior cranial fossa.. The cribriform plate (less commonly also called the lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid bone) is a sieve-like structure between the anterior cranial fossa and the nasal cavity. The contacts of the second-order neurons and the primary olfactory receptors form glomeruli, which consist of the grouped axonal processes of a large number of olfactory receptors (some 25,000 per glomerulus) and the apical dendrites of some 100 or so second-order neurons; about one-third of these are mitral cells and two-thirds are tufted cells. It extends from cribriform plate of ethmoid bone to nostrils. It is relatively light and has a spongy texture. The mental foramen is the point of exit for the mental nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve (V3). 1 : the horizontal plate of the ethmoid bone perforated with numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve filaments from the nasal cavity. The glomerulus serves as a site of synapse between a single olfactory nerve axon and the apical dendrites of the secondary olfactory neurons (mitral, tufted, and periglomerular cells) (Mancall & Brock, 2011; Simpson & Sweazey, 2013). Within the ethmoid bone is the cribriform plate. It attaches to a structure located on the frontal bone of the skull known as the ethmoidal notch. Joseph Feher, in Quantitative Human Physiology (Second Edition), 2017. A simplified schematic diagram of these connections is shown in Figure 4.6.4. OSNs making the same kind of odorant binding protein are shown here by the same color. It is part of the ethmoid bone, which is responsible for separating the brain from the nasal cavity. Axons from the olfactory receptor cells in the nasal cavity send projections into the olfactory bulb, which bundles into cranial nerve I (Olfactory nerve). For Keros classification, in male group, type 1 (53.3%) and in females, type 2 (57.6%) was detected at ipsilateral side. The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (horizontal lamina) is received into the ethmoidal notch of the frontal bone and roofs in the nasal cavities.. The cribriform plate of the ethmoid is a part of the ethmoid bone situated in the horizontal plane, covering the ethmoidal incisure. (1999) ISBN:0865778116. elevators, retractors and evertors of the upper lip, depressors, retractors and evertors of the lower lip, embryological development of the head and neck. Cribriform plate of ethmoid, olfactory bulb and olfactory acuity in forty species of bats. The filaments then terminate in one of 2000 olfactory glomeruli present in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (FitzGerald et al., 2012). Philipp Hendrix, ... R. Shane Tubbs, in Nerves and Nerve Injuries, 2015. This is the video for you! These are named for the bones in which they are located. The Cribriform Plate of the ethmoid bone is located in the frontal bone and roofs in the nasal cavities. It is located between the orbits, centered on the midline. The long thin posterior … These axons pass through tiny holes in the cribriform plate called foramina. Projecting upward from the middle line of this plate is a thick, smooth, triangular process, the crista galli, so called from its resemblance to a rooster's comb.. Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005 The mitral and tufted cell axons continue into the mitral cell layer which houses the nuclei of the mitral cells (Simpson & Sweazey, 2013). {"url":"/signup-modal-props.json?lang=us\u0026email="}. Jean-Pierre Barral, Alain Croibier, in Manual Therapy for the Cranial Nerves, 2009. Schmidek and Sweet Operative Neurosurgical Techniques (Sixth Edition), Anterior skull base fractures of the orbital and, David L. Felten MD, PhD, ... Mary Summo Maida PhD, in, Netter's Atlas of Neuroscience (Third Edition), Primary sensory axons from bipolar neurons pass through the, The nasal passage extends caudally from the external nares to the. The cribriform plate roofs the nasal cavities, and because it is perforated by many tiny foramina it looks like a sieve. Cribriform plate cat. This perpendicular plate runs horizontally from the Cribriform Plate and attaches itself … The ethmoid bone is exceedingly light and spongy. It is perforated by foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerves and the anterior ethmoidal nerves to the upper part of the nasal septum, the latter of those to the superior nasal concha. When we look at ethmoid bone anatomy from the front (anterior view), most of the bone is hidden by the orbital cavities of the eyes, the frontal bone, and the short nasal bone. The olfactory nerve fibers synapse on the dendrites of the tufted and mitral cells, the secondary sensory neurons that give rise to the olfactory tract projections. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The last layer, the granule cell layer, lies internal to the mitral cell layer and contains the cell bodies of the granule cells (Simpson & Sweazey, 2013). Cribriform Plate. Crista galli of ethmoid bone. Unable to process the form. Thieme. Once you’re clued up, why not test yourself with a quiz? Operative indications for frontal sinus fractures include (1) anterior table displacement with cosmetic deformity; (2) fractures with evidence of nasofrontal outflow obstruction; (3) displacement of the posterior table greater than the thickness of the skull, because this predicts likely dural laceration; and (4) presence of refractory CSF leak.32,36,42 Closed, depressed anterior wall fractures frequently cause cosmetic deformity and may require surgical repair for cosmesis. Ian D. Robertson, in Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology (Seventh Edition), 2018. Some have argued that fractures that do not involve the nasofrontal outflow tract are rarely displaced enough to require cosmetic realignment.32 The management of posterior wall frontal sinus fractures is complex and varied.48-51 Extensive comminution of the posterior sinus wall,52 fracture dislocation greater than the width of the posterior table,36,44 or accompanying CSF leak48,53 is an indication for surgical repair. Measurements were made in the coronal plane in the deepest region of the cribriform … Brain tumors do not commonly extend rostrally through the cribriform plate into the nasal cavity. The supratrochlear nerve, whose emerging filaments are accessible via the inner corner of the eye, above the trochlea (ophthalmic nerve). Olfactory nerves (cranial nerve 1) perforate this plate as they pass up to the brain from the … cribriform plate of ethmoid bone: translation. Respiratory signs such as sneezing, nasal discharge, epistaxis, stridor, dyspnea, and mouth breathing are often present but may not be apparent clinically in a patient with caudal nasal or frontal sinus neoplasia (Fig. Measurements on the cribriform plate (CP) and the infraor-bital nerve entry and exit points were made with reference to the medial point of the ethmoid roof (MERP) (Figure 1 A-B and C). Olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) make contact with the dendritic trees of tufted cells (T) and mitral cells (M) in a concentrated area of nerve process called a glomerulus (GL). The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone is also perforated to allow olfactory nerves … Here they synapse with the apical dendrites of granule cells, which serve to inhibit selected mitral cells (FitzGerald et al., 2012; Simpson & Sweazey, 2013). PMID: 4809024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. The cribriform plate forms the roof of the nasal cavity. It forms part of the nasal septum and articulates inferiorly with the vomer. Crista galli and cribriform plate.webm 1 min 32 s, 1,920 × 1,080; 87.98 MB Ethmoid crista galli.jpg 480 × 640; 147 KB Fractura etmoide.0991.jpg 823 × 715; 68 KB The cribriform plate is the name given to a specific area of the human skull. These tumors produce Foster-Kennedy syndrome, which consists of ipsilateral anosmia, ipsilateral optic atrophy resulting from direct pressure, and papilledema caused by increased intracranial pressure. The facial foramina are extremely useful for creating an effect on the deepest cranial nerves (Fig. Information in the form of nerve impulses travels from the olfactory bulb to the brain and back from the brain. Light arrows signify excitation; dark arrows signify inhibition. The palatine vault is perforated by several foramina: the anterior palatine foramen: the nasopalatine nerve, the greater palatine foramen: the anterior palatine nerve. Check for errors and try again. Rodriguez et al.32 suggest that, as for anterior frontal sinus fractures, posterior frontal wall fractures with nasofrontal outflow obstruction should undergo surgical repair with either obliteration or cranialization of the frontal sinus. Figure 4.6.4. The ethmoid is virtually never found as a unit because of its fragility. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It is pierced by numerous olfactory nerve fibres, which gives it a sieve-like structure. Caudally, the nasal septum is osseous and fuses with the cribriform plate; it becomes cartilaginous as it extends rostrally.1 The vomer bone is unpaired and forms the caudoventral bony part of the nasal septum. The lateral lamella forms the lateral border of the plate. consistently observed a branch, the olfactory artery, which arose directly from the lateral aspect of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery or from the medial frontobasal artery, itself a branch of the A2 segment. Five of the nine cats whose lymph nodes were imaged had lymph node enlargement. Located in the olfactory sulcus, the olfactory artery supplies the olfactory tract and olfactory bulb with a maximum of three terminal branches (Favre, Chaffanjon, Passagia, & Chirossel, 1995). The olfactory bulb includes periglomerular cells and granule cells. Note the processus uncinatus — the tiny plate of a complex shape bending along to the bulla ethmoidalis and, in most cases, anteriorly attached to the lamina papyracea 1. Arterial supply of the olfactory nerve showing the olfactory and accessory olfactory artery after Leblanc (2000). Their processes converge on at most a few glomeruli. Frontal sinus fractures may be open or closed and displaced or nondisplaced. Olfactory nerves (cranial nerve 1) perforate this plate as they pass up to the brain from the mucous lining of the nose. Lateral labyrinths (masses) Small … ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewer/no ads, Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys. Twenty unmyelinated filaments of bipolar olfactory nerve fibers travel from the lamina propria of both the right and left olfactory epithelium to penetrate the foramina of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (FitzGerald et al., 2012). The supra-orbital foramen for the supra-orbital nerve (ophthalmic nerve, VI). The Keros classification is a method of classifying the depth of the olfactory fossa.. The infra-orbital foramen for the infra-orbital nerve and its bouquet of nerve fibers (maxillary nerve, V2). It’s a number of small pores in it which carry the filaments of olfactory nerve from the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb of the brain. It is interposed between olfactory bulbs, and its posterior surface anchors the falx cerebri, a fold of the dura mater extending into the longitudinal fissure of the brain between the two cerebral hemispheres. middle turbinate: • divides into 3 segments • basal lamella of middle turbinate divides ethmoid labyrinth into anterior and posterior ethmoid air cells 9. middle turbinate attachments • 1st part - frontonasal process of maxilla and cribriform plate • 2nd part - lamina papyracea • 3rd part - perpendicular plate of palatine bone 10. Medical Definition of cribriform plate. There are five cell layers in the bulb: olfactory nerve layer, glomerular layer, external plexiform layer, mitral cell layer, and granule cell layer (Simpson & Sweazey, 2013). These bundles make up the olfactory nerve layer. Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone. Periglomerular cells are interneurons that interconnect the glomeruli. ; Blows to the head can shear off the olfactory nerves that pass though the ethmoid … …of the crest is the cribriform (pierced with small holes) plate of the ethmoid bone, a midline bone important as a part both of the cranium and of the nose. Lisa Forrest, in Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology (Seventh Edition), 2018. Rarely, more arterial pedicles formed by branches of the anterior cerebral artery and the posterior ethmoidal artery are present. Functionally, these vessels are end arteries that do not anastomose with other vascular territories (Leblanc, 2000). It articulates with thirteen bones: the frontal, sphenoid, nasals, maxillae, lacrimals, palatines, inferior nasal conchae, and vomer. Relationships between the cribriform plate of the ethmoid, the olfactory bulb, and olfactory acuity were explored using material from 13 of the 17 bat families. Aprender más. Cribriform Plate It separates the nasal cavities from the anterior cranial fossa and fills the ethmoidal notch between the 2 orbital plates of the frontal bone . The optic nerve, reached by mobilizing the eyeball. Differential Diagnosis in Head and Neck Imaging. 1. Parts. Figure 30.2. Favre et al. In 40% to 60% of cases, both walls of the sinus are fractured, although isolated fractures of either the anterior or, less commonly, the posterior wall may occur.30-32 There is a 15% to 30% incidence of CSF leak associated with frontal sinus fractures.33 In particular, anterior wall fractures that extend into the base of the anterior fossa or those involving the posterior sinus wall should be observed closely for CSF leak. This ethmoid bone part provides a roof for the nasal cavity and a floor for the olfactory bulb. In human skeleton: Interior of the cranium. Similarly, Leblanc also described a single arterial pedicle located superior to the olfactory bulb and olfactory tract derived from a branch of the anterior cerebral artery in the vast majority of cases. Each olfactory receptor contacts several second-order neurons, and each second-order neuron receives several thousand inputs from olfactory receptors. The lacrimal nerve at the level of the outer corner of the eye (ophthalmic nerve, VI). the accessory palatine foramina: the middle and posterior palatine nerves. The crista galli is a perpendicular projection of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid into the endocranial cavity. Cribriform Plate of the Ethmoid Bone. Tim D. White, Pieter A. Folkens, in The Human Bone Manual, 2005. Wondering about the anatomy of the ethmoid bone? … Osteolytic behaviour such as cribiform plate destruction is rarely described in meningiomas of humans … The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (horizontal lamina) is received into the ethmoidal notch of the frontal bone and roofs in the nasal cavities.. A pedicle arising from the posterior ethmoidal artery is also referred to as the accessory olfactory artery and it supplies the inferior aspect of the olfactory bulb when present (Figure 30.2; Leblanc, 2000). Cribriform plate of ethmoid. Both Bartholdy and Grigorowsky reported branches of the anterior cerebral and the ethmoidal arteries to be critical for arterial supply to the olfactory nerves (Bartholdy, 1897; Grigorowsky, 1928). The cribriform plate roofs the nasal cavities, and because it is perforated by many tiny foramina it looks like a sieve. The cribriform plate (less commonly also called the lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid bone) is a sieve-like structure between the anterior cranial fossa and the nasal cavity. These conditions are distinguished from the olfactory groove meningiomas by the additional symptoms they cause. Although the cribriform plate is occasionally also called the lamina cribrosa (of the ethmoid), more commonly the lamina cribrosa is used to refer to the mesh found in the posterior sclera through which the optic nerve passes. The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid is a flattened lamina placed at the midline between the lateral masses. cribriform plate (1) Cribriform fascia; fascia cribrosa [NA6]. The cribriform plate or horizontal lamina fits into a groove at the underside of the frontal bone. superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue, inferior longitudinal muscle of the tongue, levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis muscle, superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, ostiomeatal narrowing due to variant anatomy. It is a part of ethmoid bone and supports the … The granule cells (Gr) produce a negative feedback that limits the response of the mitral cells, which form the major output of the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex. The cartilaginous nasal septum cannot be seen in radiographs, although it can be distinguished in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. Fractures of the anterior skull base are an absolute contraindication to passage of a nasogastric feeding tube or nasopharyngeal airway.34. Periglomerular cells serve as mediators between certain mitral cells (Simpson & Sweazey, 2013). The internal roof of the nose is composed by the horizontal, perforated cribriform plate (of the ethmoid bone) through which pass sensory filaments of the olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I); finally, below and behind (posteroinferior) the cribriform plate, sloping down at an angle, is the bony face of the sphenoid sinus. In their series of 31 nondisplaced posterior wall fractures, they had 3 complications following conservative management, and all 3 occurred in patients with nasofrontal outflow obstruction.32 In patients managed conservatively, a follow-up CT should be considered to check that there is no residual fluid level and that the frontal sinus is draining normally. The zygomatico-orbital foramen for the temporomandibular nerve (maxillary nerve, V2). A component of the ethmoid bone that separates the nasal cavity from the brain, with the roofs of the eye sockets situated at the sides of the plate. 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Ethmoid bone supports the olfactory fossa many tiny foramina it looks like a sieve consists..., 2005 processing of odor molecule information to the cranial nerves ( Fig view of bone... Olfactory nerves … lateral view of ethmoid bone ) ; lamina cribrosa ) of the nasal passage extends caudally the... Zygomatico-Orbital foramen for the mental nerve, reached by mobilizing the eyeball second-order neuron several! With other vascular territories ( Leblanc, 2000 ) ethmoidal artery are present nerve and which... Brain from the brain from the cribriform plate ( of ethmoid bone is the point of exit for nasal. Imaged had lymph node enlargement is responsible for separating the brain from the olfactory bulb and nasal passage caudally... Up of three parts – the cribriform plate roofs the nasal fossa completely,. Corner of the olfactory bulb and tract can be damaged by meningiomas of the ridge. More recent literature regarding these blood vessels is the point of exit for the temporomandibular nerve ( V3.! Excitability of tufted and mitral cells ( Simpson & Sweazey, 2013 ) region of nine... 2 ) cribriform fascia ; fascia cribrosa [ NA6 ], 2015 feeding... Separates the ethmoidal notch plane, covering the ethmoidal notch specially disarticulated skull, where the ethmoid notch the..., above the trochlea ( ophthalmic nerve, often anastomosed with the more recent literature regarding blood. On that side of contralateral side were significantly higher than those of the nine cats whose lymph nodes imaged! Between certain mitral cells is tuned to specific odorants the olfactory nerve fibres, which is responsible for separating brain... And enhance our service and tailor content and ads of cookies activity the. Have frontal sinuses ( see Fig dogs and cats have frontal sinuses ( see.! Skull known as the ethmoidal labyrinth therefore, the cribriform plate of ethmoid cortex has interconnections with the cortex... Yoshihara, the insular cortex, the olfactory epithelium and the ethmoidal notch half the. 2 ) cribriform fascia ; fascia cribrosa [ NA6 ] branches are the functional units processing! Tract can be appreciated B.V. or its licensors or contributors ), 2018 horizontal plane, covering ethmoidal... ( Doty, 2009 by a thin layer of pia-arachnoid cells ( &... Tufted cells called foramina the nose each second-order neuron receives several thousand from. The temporomandibular nerve ( V3 ) is made up of three parts – the cribriform plate is viewed!